By Arthur Goldschmidt Jr.
The 7th version of Arthur Goldschmidt’s generally acclaimed textual content has been widely revised to mirror the newest scholarship and the newest occasions within the center East, together with a elegant dialogue of the existence and project of the Prophet Muhammad and a rationalization of the features of the Palestinian-Israeli clash. As an creation to the background of this turbulent sector from the beginnings of Islam to the current day, the booklet is unusual via its transparent variety, extensive scope, and balanced therapy. Written for college kids, the textual content assumes no earlier wisdom of center jap historical past. It specializes in the evolution of Islamic associations and tradition, the effect of the West, the modernization efforts of heart jap governments, the fight of assorted peoples for political independence, the process the Arab-Israeli clash, the reassertion of Islamic values and tool, the aftermath of the Gulf battle, and matters surrounding the Palestinian query. This version additionally incorporates a unique and up to date chronology, a word list of names and phrases, and a bibliographic essay directory books and different resources that might end up valuable to either lecturers and scholars. Maps, tables, and figures increase the price of this version.
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Additional info for A Concise History of the Middle East (7th Edition)
Tests of strength, suchas raids and skirmishes, were common. Each tribe was governed by a council of adult men who represented the various clans or smaller family groupings. The council chose a shaykh (elder), usually the member of the tribe mostrespected for his braveryand generosity, except in afew tribes where the leadership was hereditary. The council decided on questions of waging war or making peace, inasmuch as the tribe increased itsmeager income by raiding other tribes and “protecting” the commercial caravans thatplied between Syria and the Indian Ocean.
It enabled him to unitehis followers as a community, as a nation, or (touse an Arabic word that is so hard to translate)as an ummah. From then on, Muhammad was both a prophet and a lawgiver, both a religious and a political leader. Islam was both a faith in one God as revealed to Muhammad (and theearlier prophets) and a sociopolitical system. Muhammad and his followers drew up the Constitutionof Medina as a concrete expression of their ummah. No wonder the Muslims, when they later set up their owncalendar, made thefirst year the one in which the hijrah had occurred.
This accommodation horrified many Muslims. When Muhammad realized what he had done, he denounced what he had mistaken for a divine revelation, and the Quran addressed the Quraysh regarding thosegoddesses: What, would you have males and He females? That would indeed be an unjust division. They are nothing but names you and your fathershave named, God has sent down no authority touching them. (Quran, 53:21-23) When Muhammad disowned the goddesses, the Meccan leaders became angry, for the keepers of their nearby shrines were Mecca’s allies.
A Concise History of the Middle East (7th Edition) by Arthur Goldschmidt Jr.