By Tharwat Tadros
An authoritative and entire reference appropriate to all scientists and engineers within the box. This encyclopedia not just is helping chemistry, fabrics technology and physics researchers to appreciate the rules, but additionally presents practising engineers with the mandatory info for imposing useful purposes, such as
- Food and agrochemicals
- Polymers and ceramics
- Cosmetics and detergents
- Paints and coatings
- Pharmaceuticals and drug delivery
In addition, the encyclopedia is a vital reference for business chemists and chemical engineers confronted with a mess of business structures of a colloidal nature.
As huge because the diversity of purposes that colloid and interface technological know-how has is the variety of medical disciplines that give a contribution to investigate and improvement during this box. those surround chemistry, physics, biology and arithmetic in addition to nanoscience and nanotechnology. The encyclopedia offers easy-to-digest info for assembly those interdisciplinary challenges.
While offering a number of concise definitions of keyword phrases, the encyclopedia additionally beneficial properties greater than 40 in-depth essays on issues starting from Agrochemical Formulations to Zeta capability. All entries are cross-referenced and contain chosen references to unique literature in addition to synonyms.
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Additional resources for Encyclopedia of Colloid and Interface Science
Good correlation is found in many cases between the critical flocculation temperature (CFT) and y-temperature of the polymer in solution (with block and graft copolymers one should consider the y-temperature of the stabilizing chains A) (Tadros et al. 1981; Napper 1981). Good correlation is also found between the critical volume fraction (CFV) of a non-solvent for the polymer chains and their y-point under these conditions. However, in some cases, such correlation may break down, particularly the case for polymers which adsorb by multipoint attachment.
With EWs, aggregation of droplets must also be avoided for the same reasons as for suspensions. In addition, aggregation of emulsion may result in their coalescence with ultimate oil separation. Maintenance of colloid stability is also essential with suspoemulsions (mixtures of suspensions and emulsions). Aggregation of particles and droplets (referred to as heteroflocculation) must be prevented, otherwise the formulation loses its physical stability on storage. The stability/instability of any agrochemical dispersion is determined by the balance of three main forces: (1) van der Waals attraction that is universal for all disperse systems, and it results mainly from the London dispersion forces between the particles or droplets.
Combination of Gel and GA results in the wellknown theory of stability of colloids (DeryaguinLandau-Verwey-Overbeek, DLVO Theory) (Deryaguin and Landau 1941; Verwey and Overbeek 1948): GT ¼ Gel þ GA (27) A plot of GT versus h is shown in Fig. 21, which represents the case at low electrolyte concentrations, that is, strong electrostatic repulsion between the particles. Gel decays exponentially with h, that is, Gel ! 0 as h becomes large. GA is 1 1/h, that is, GA does not decay to 0 at large h. At long distances of separation, GA > Gel resulting in a shallow minimum (secondary minimum).
Encyclopedia of Colloid and Interface Science by Tharwat Tadros