By Seizo Morita
Scanning tunneling microscopy has completed outstanding development and develop into the most important expertise for floor technological know-how. This booklet predicts the longer term improvement for all of scanning probe microscopy (SPM). Such forecasts can assist to figure out the direction finally taken and will speed up learn and improvement on nanotechnology and nanoscience, in addition to all in SPM-related fields within the future.
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Additional resources for Roadmap of scanning probe microscopy
Under liquid condition the Q value of tip vibration for the distance regulation based on the tuning fork drastically decreases due to the viscosity. The degradation of force sensitivity results in fatal damage to the sample. Compared with the straight ﬁber probe, a bent ﬁber probe with lower spring constant can reduce the tip–sample interaction force even in the contact-mode operation . There is another idea originating from a diving bell, in which the tuning fork is vibrating in air, while the tip is immersed in liquid .
Sugawara an atomic species at the tip apex using the sputtering method. Establishment of the preparation method of the well-deﬁned sharp probing tip is required. Next key issue is the force sensitivity of the AFM, which also determines the spatial resolution of AFM images. In commercial AFM instrumentations, the optical beam deﬂection method is widely used as a displacement sensor of the cantilever. However, its force sensitivity is not suﬃcient to realize the stable atomic resolution imaging and to quantify the very weak force interaction between the tip and the sample surface.
Yamada Evac Egap Evac Egap = 0 Df f1 f2 EF1 Vs = −Df EF2 Probe Sample Vs Fig. 1. Energy diagram of probe–sample system when (left) they are isolated, (center ) both are grounded, and (right) vacuum levels are equalized by an external bias When AC voltage VAC with an angular frequency ωm is applied between the probe and sample, the probe vibrates with the frequency ωm by the electrostatic force. 1) where VDC is an externally applied bias voltage to the probe. Since electrostatic force is proportional to square of voltage, the vibration contains DC, ωm and 2ωm components.
Roadmap of scanning probe microscopy by Seizo Morita