By Bill Freund
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Additional resources for The African City: A History (New Approaches to African History)
It is likely that older forms, for example those which expressed pre-Islamic beliefs, were obliterated or forgotten in many cases where the wave of movements that aimed at creating truly Muslim societies won widespread support and became politically 3 Andr´e Raymond, Cairo: City of History (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press and Cairo: American University Press, 2001), 207. 13:6 P1: JZZ 0521821096c02 CUFX035/Freund 42 0 521 82109 6 printer:cupusbw October 18, 2006 THE AFRICAN CITY dominant.
Carthage has origins that go back somewhat further. This great city was founded by Phoenicians, the Lebanese of the ancient world, who 12:25 P1: JZZ 0521821096c01 CUFX035/Freund 0 521 82109 6 URBAN LIFE EMERGES IN AFRICA printer:cupusbw October 18, 2006 23 combined commerce with settlement and had the western Mediterranean as their chosen field of expansion, from perhaps as early as 800 BC. Carthage, which retained strong filial ties to the cities of Phoenicia – the name was a Greek transliteration for the words for new city – and continued to revere their gods in human and other forms of sacrifice, was the dynamic centre of this expansion.
Further north from Kilwa, Malindi and Mombasa and other towns developed on the coast of present-day Kenya where the gold trade cannot have been a factor. Despite their wealth, the impact of Kilwa and other entrepot ˆ towns on the hinterland was small until the rise of a new kind of ivory caravan trade feeding into international capitalist circuits in the nineteenth century under the hegemony of Zanzibar. In West Africa, long before the time of Zanzibar, Islam went hand in hand with the growth of trans-Saharan commerce and acquired increasingly deep local roots.
The African City: A History (New Approaches to African History) by Bill Freund