By Piotr S. Wandycz
The Lands of Partitioned Poland, 1795-1918 comprehensively covers an enormous, complicated, and debatable interval within the heritage of Poland and East principal Europe, starting in 1795 whilst the remnanst of the Polish Commonwealth have been disbursed between Prussia, Austria, and Russia, and culminating in 1918 with the re-establishment of an autonomous Polish nation. till this thorough and authoritative research, literature at the topic in English has been restricted to a couple chapters in multiauthored works.
Chronologically, Wandycz strains the histories of the lands below Prussian, Austrian, and Russian rule, declaring their divergent evolution in addition to the threads that sure them jointly. the result's a balanced, complete photograph of the social, political, financial, and cultural advancements of all nationalities inhabiting the land of the previous commonwealth, instead of a restricted heritage of 1 kingdom (Poland) and one humans (the Poles).
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Extra resources for The Lands of Partitioned Poland, 1795-1918
Establishing close friendship with Alexander, prior to the latter's accession to the throne, he became part of the grand duke's intimate circle of liberal-minded Russians which included Pavel Stroganov and Nikolai Novosiltsov. Alexander assured Czartoryski of his disapproval of the partitions of Poland. He also told him of his plans to modernize Russia. A complex relationship between the two men developed (in which Alexander's wife, whom Czartoryski loved, 34 THE LANDS OF PARTITIONED POLAND, 1795-1918 also figured), and historians still disagree on whether it was the prince who influenced the tsar or the tsar who influenced the prince.
5 The collapse of Poland was likened to the finality of the fall of Carthage and of Troy. Feelings of despair were mingled with attempts to forget the past and enjoy the present. ;,;, Frightened for their 1 5. Cited in Marian Kukiel, Dzieje Polski porozbiorowe 1795-1921 (London: B. Swiderski, 1961), p. 53. The Country and the People 23 positions or simply wishing to escape the atmosphere of collapse and gloom, many aristocrats and wealthy nobles plunged into a gay social life. The unquestionably patriotic nephew of the last king of Poland, Prince J6zefPoniatowski (1763-1813), presided over revelries in the half-deserted Warsaw.
Shortly thereafter Napoleon's troops crossed the former boundary between Prussia and Poland. The French were now on Polish soil, and Napoleon expected a general insurrection to assist his military effort. " After entering Berlin the emperor summand D~browski and Wybicki. He ordered that efforts be made to induce Kosciuszko to lend his name and prestige to an uprising in Prussian Poland. He declared that France had never recognized the partitions. It was up to the Poles whether they would prove "worthy to be a nation" once again, and he demanded from them a serious military effort.
The Lands of Partitioned Poland, 1795-1918 by Piotr S. Wandycz