By Daniel Z. Stone
For 4 centuries, the Polish–Lithuanian country encompassed an important geographic quarter equivalent to present-day Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Russia, Latvia, Estonia, and Romania. ruled by means of a constitutional monarchy that provided the varied the Aristocracy broad civil and political rights, it loved strange family tranquility, for its army power stored so much enemies at bay till the mid-seventeenth century and the rustic in general refrained from civil wars. promoting grain and trees to western Europe helped make it exceedingly prosperous for a lot of the period.
The Polish–Lithuanian nation, 1386–1795 is the 1st account in English dedicated particularly to this crucial period. It takes a nearby instead of a countrywide strategy, contemplating the inner improvement of the Ukrainian, Jewish, Lithuanian, and Prussian German countries that coexisted with the Poles during this multinational nation. providing Jewish heritage additionally clarifies city historical past, simply because Jews lived within the unincorporated "private towns" and suburbs, which historians have neglected in want of included "royal cities." within the 17th and eighteenth centuries the personal towns and suburbs frequently thrived whereas the interior towns decayed. The e-book additionally lines the institutional improvement of the Roman Catholic Church in Poland–Lithuania, one of many few ecu states to flee bloody non secular clash throughout the Reformation and Counter Reformation.
Both pro historians and common readers will get pleasure from the various very good short biographies that boost the narrative and light up the subject material of this complete and soaking up quantity.
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Additional resources for The Polish-Lithuanian State, 1386-1795
Grand Duke Aleksander soon regained power by arranging for both the Lithuanian and Polish nobles to reject the Mielnik privilege. In Poland, lesser nobles refused to pay taxes and ignored court decrees in protest against senate domination. The senators tried to buy their support by issuing favorable social legislation, but King Aleksander appointed a leader of the lesser nobility, Jan L aski from Great Poland, as chancellor and had him lead the lesser nobility at the 1504 Piotrków parliamentary meeting in rejecting the senate’s demands.
Prussian Dissatisfaction and Polish Expansion to the Baltic Coast Kazimierz’s interest in Great Poland led to the Polish conquest of the Baltic coast after Prussians revolted against the Teutonic Order, hoping to abolish the Order’s J ag i e L L o ’ s S u c c e s s o r s 29 irksome restrictions on economic and political freedoms. As conflict increased between the Order and the Prussian Estates, an association of cities and nobles formed the Prussian Union in 1440 along the lines of the Lizard Union of 1397 to protest Order practices in taxation, coinage, land sales, and milling monopolies.
Aleksander also strengthened the nobility’s freedom to dispose of its estates and reduced its obligations to the state. He turned to Orthodox nobles such as Konstiantyn Ostrozky to build his own faction without much success, and his attempt to unify his subjects by promoting the union of the Catholic and Orthodox Churches aroused scant interest. He used his marriage to Helena, daughter of Russian Tsar Ivan III and Sophia Paleologus, niece of the last Byzantine emperor, to strengthen his claim to rule Ruthenian lands.
The Polish-Lithuanian State, 1386-1795 by Daniel Z. Stone